Szarzewski was forced off in Racing's match with Grenoble with two separated shoulders, as well as a calf knock, and is not expected to be fit to train before Thursday.
As a result, Perpignan hooker Guilhem Guirado has been called up in his place and will join up with the rest of the France squad this week.
Guirado had initially been picked as part of the 33-man squad but is yet to feature in this year's Championship, having won the first of his 15 international caps five years ago against Italy.
France coach Philippe Saint-André said: "We've made this change straightaway because with Dimitri's injuries he won't be able to train before Thursday. Even then, his chances of being involved would be about 50-50.
"Without any certainties and only five days to get ready for the match, we decided to bring in Guilhem so that he can work with the squad. We wish Dimitri all the best in his recovery."